Academic Writing On Sex

The Influence of Social Acceptance on Sexual Behaviors and Desires:

A Study of Sexual Fluidity

Misty Evans

Soc 4900

May 1, 2009

Word Count: 4,137

 

 

Abstract

 

The main objective is to explore the influence that social acceptance has on a subject’s sexuality via surveys and an article on the “norm” of a fluid sexuality.  In order to study sexuality , subjects were asked to read a persuasive essay and complete two identical surveys featuring the Klein Grid, Likert scale, and demographic fill-in-the-blanks questionaire on religiosity, personal sexual behaviors, desires, and sexual orientation. It was administered to a random sample of forty-one not married subjects on a University campus in Ogden Utah. Each subject received Survey 1, the article, and then Survey 2 in that order. The fluidity of a subject’s personal sexual behaviors and/or desires was measured using the Klein Grid, taking any responses from a range of 2-6 as “fluid”. The purpose was to measure sexually fluid responses by gender on Survey 1, then to see if there was any variance in fluidity from Survey 1 to Survey 2 after subjects read the persuasive article. A cross tab was then ran to check for any significant correlation in a subject’s fluidity (or lack of) and religiosity. Data support the hypothesis that subject’s will be influenced by social acceptance, that the responses on survey 2 will be more “fluid” than survey 1. There was a 2.5% increase in fluid answers from survey 1 to survey 2. There was also a gender variance; male’s displayed 5.5% more fluidity than females in sexual behaviors and sexual fantasy. A significant correlation was found when comparing religiosity and sexual behavior on both survey 1 and survey 2 where there was less fluidity among subjects who responded as “very religious” or “I am religious” and greater fluidity in subjects who identified as “sort of religious” or “not religious”.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Literature Review………………………………………………………………………………. 4

Theory……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9

Methods…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10

Results……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12

Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………. 18

Limitations…………………………………………………………………………………………. 19

Works Cited………………………………………………………………………………………. 20

Appendix A Survey 1…………………………………………………………………………. 22

Appendix B Survey 2………………………………………………………………………….. 23

Appendix C Article…………………………………………………………………………….. 26

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            Human sexuality is a vital part of human society, yet there has been relatively little research conducted in the area (Weeks 2003). Cross cultural and historical studies on sexuality indicate a sort of fluidity that doesn’t exist in mainstream thought (Foucault 1990). Research conducted by Alfred Kinsey, and Fritz Klein reinforce the historical and cultural studies that sexuality is in fact fluid, it changes depending on time, place, gender, social norms, religiosity, and various other dependant variables (1948/1998). Society creates sexual standards, preferences, “norms” and because sexuality is a societal construct it’s safe to assume that society’s immediate or direct influence can sway fluidity in a person’s sexual behaviors and desires. There doesn’t seem to be an innate tendency for human beings, rather a fluid sexuality that changes as society changes (Foucault 1990), but to what extent? Because sexuality is so important to human existence, learning how it’s developed and maintained is important. The influence of social acceptance on sexual behaviors and desires can show that there is not necessarily a right or wrong way to be a sexual creature; rather, citizens are what society makes them. This research addresses the question, how does social acceptance influence one’s sexuality?

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Historical and Cultural Sexual Fluidity

Sexual fluidity is the ability to change sexually for any period of time or react sexually in unpredicted ways to particular “situations or relationships (Diamond, Lisa 2000.).” According to Michel Foucault, sexuality is not innate and argues that it is in fact a “historical construct” (1990).”  Human sexuality changes through history and culture (Weeks 2003), both men and women’s sexual desires and behaviors have changed constantly throughout history, from depicting women as a manipulative harlot and man as the reluctant logical creature like in the story of the bibles Adam and Eve. At other times, such as in the Victorian Period, women are prudish and innocent and men are sex crazed and manipulative. Sexuality is what it is depending on the culture and time, it’s not necessarily a biological given (Schwartz and Rutter 2008).

All societies set societal norms for its sexual desires and behaviors, and have historically changed depending on what the society has set as acceptable vs. taboo. When studied cross culturally, or historically human sexual behavior and desires change based upon cultural norms, as the sexual desires and behaviors of citizens change depending on the social acceptability, or social norms of the culture (Weeks 2003).  We have seen individual sexuality change through time, historically, western culture has seen a significant shift from pre to post Victorian standards where the west has changed the focus from what people do during sex, to whom it is they are having sex with (Weeks 2003). Western society was more sexually tolerant before the rise of the Victorian Bourgeoisie and as we can see the change from conservative to not so conservative we can see that sexuality is subject to social influence through time (Foucault 1990).

To examine how sexuality changes through culture, as well as historically, we can compare current sexual standards in Sweden and Ireland. In Sweden it’s not only okay, but expected to have premarital sex. Sex is openly talked about, and done without shame or guilt. In Ireland however, the Catholic Church prohibits premarital sex, and since the religious influence is great premarital sex in Irish society is considered shameful.  Society’s rules are changeable, and therefore the change in culturally acceptable sexual desires changes with it (Schwartz and Rutter 2008).

Sexual Fluidity: Behaviors and Desires

Sexual desire is the drive to engage in sexual acts, sexual behavior refers to the actual sexual acts that people participate in. Sexual behaviors and sexual desires are defined by culture, and cultures vary on what is a “normal or acceptable” sexuality. People differ in what they find attractive, and they are physically aroused by different things (Schwartz and Rutter 2008).

  1.             Alfred Kinsey’s research opened the door for research in sexual diversity. While people may identify themselves as homosexual or heterosexual, their desires and behaviors do not always match their orientation. Kinsey found that in daily life people would claim to have a solid sexual orientation, but in interviews and survey’s people orientation, or sexual behaviors or desires changed throughout time or situation. The Kinsey Scale was created to rate the sexual fluidity of a subject’s responses, according to the scale, human sexuality generally falls somewhere between homo, and heterosexual (1948/1998).

It has been argued that differences in sexuality are innate, for example the Bonobo Chimpanzee is human’s closest relative with a unique social structure that differs greatly from the Chimpanzee yet because of genetic similarities to humans can be used to show possible innate characteristic in the human species (De Waall 1995). Take sexuality for example, the Bonobo chimpanzee’s sexuality is extremely fluid as the animals are bisexual.  They mate to procreate but otherwise behave bisexually having both homosexual and heterosexual sex daily throughout their lives (De Waal1995).

Sexual Fluidity: Gender

While both men and women tend to show some level of fluidity in their sexuality, recent studies show that women’s sexual orientation tends to be more fluid than men’s. Society and situation tend to be the main factors attributing to women’s sexual fluidity.  (Diamond, 2000). In Lever’s (1994) Advocate survey, more men than women identify themselves as homosexual; however, more heterosexual women than men reported homosexual behaviors and desires.

Two large and rather recent empirical studies done by (R. Hoburg et al 2004) examined bisexuality among “self-identified heterosexual” college students in three regions of the United States. For female college students, the rate of bisexuality was fairly consistent with around 30% reporting same-sex feelings. The findings for heterosexually identified college women suggest considerable sexual fluidity exists for this population. Women who called themselves heterosexual still had sexually fluid responses. (2004).

Another study published (Kinnish, K. K et al. 2004) shows sexuality with regards to three different dimensions: sexual fantasies, romantic attraction, & sexual behavior. Significant differences were found between heterosexual men & women regarding sexual fantasies & romantic attractions. Both heterosexual & homosexual women reported more recurrent changes in their sexual orientation, desires, or behaviors over time as compared to males (2004).

Religious Conviction and Sexual Conservatism

The west’s change towards sexual conservatism seemed to have been created by Judeo-Christian ideas of sexuality, “the disapproval with sex only for pleasure” and sex only for reproduction and then in the eighteenth and nineteenth century with the definitions of ‘normal sex’ being heterosexual sex, making all other kinds of sex ‘deviant’ (Weeks 2003).

Religiosity tends to have a sexually conservative influence on human sexual desires and behaviors. A study done at Connecticut State University found a significant relationship between religious conviction and homosexual intolerance (Cotten,and Waite 2000 ).  Another study done comparing sexual behaviors of four eastern universities found that religiosity is a key influence on conservative sexual behavior (Davidson, J. K. et al 2008).  Fundamental religious orientation “(religious with religion as the ends of the mean) also has a negative correlation with sexual liberalism, mutual masturbation, premarital sex, oral sex, and non genital petting (Rowatt and Schmitt 2003)”.

Human sexuality is a social construct (Foucault 1990). Sexual behaviors and desires run parallel with what society deems desirable or normal. Humans display a certain level of sexual fluidity, and have been historically fluid (Weeks 2003). Our closest relative, a very fluid Bonobo chimpanzee may tell us that humans are not meant to be purely homosexual or heterosexual but fluid (De Waal 1995). In studies both men and women show sexual fluidity, although women seem to be more sexually fluid in both desires and behaviors than men (Kinnish, K. K., et al 2004). Many factors may play a roll in why such as certain elements of socialization (Diamond 2008). Historically we have shown waves of sexual fluidity from a more fluid standard in Greece to Judeo Christian standards. Judeo/Christianity has played a strong role in creating the current cultural standards of heterosexual monogamous relationships (Weeks 2003). There has been very little research done on the direct influence of society on sexuality, while historical and cross cultural studies indicate complex fluidity (Foucalt). Human sexuality is influenced by social acceptance, and social norms. Sexuality is an important part of human society and studying the direct influence of society on sexuality is a significant part of understanding such a central, convoluted part of human life.

THEORY

            The dominant scholastic reference on sexual fluidity is a social constructionist one. Social constructionists focus on sexuality as influenced by culture and changes through time. Sexual constructionist focuses on the fluidity of human sexual nature (Brickell 2006). Human sexuality is not an actor’s innate tendency, rather what the actor’s society deems as ‘normal’. Social Constructionists argue that reality is created of an actor’s perception, and unless an actor wishes to be a social deviant he/she is likely to follow social norms adapting their sexuality to what is deemed acceptable (Gordon and Abbot 2003).

Society has greatly influenced sexuality (Foucault 1990). Biology clearly plays some role in sexual desire considering the most substantial element of sexuality is sex because the sex of an individual will dictate how he or she is sexually socialized throughout his/her life (Schwartz and Rutter 2008).  Social Constructionists argue that people acquire the desires and behaviors that are available and appealing to them, these choices are made on personal history, social norms, and costs and benefits in a given social system (Brickell 2006).   The sexual differences between men and women are what a constructionist would argue is a result of gendering sexuality (Schwartz and Rutter 1998) both men and women undergo sexuality gendering where they are taught, based on societal norms what or whom they should sexually desire.

 

METHOD

Subjects: A random sample of 41 single persons from a university in Ogden Utah.  Every third person walking by was asked to participate in the study. Total number of subjects participating in the study was 41, of that total 56.1 percent were female and 43.9 percent were male. The religiosity for such a small sample size was considerably high, with 99 percent of respondents having some form of religious affiliation. The average age of subjects was 23 years old, with the average number of same sex partners being .95 and the average number of opposite sex partners being 3.

Table 1

Total Number of Subjects

41

Males

43.9%

Females

56.1%

Religious Affiliated (Christian)

21.9%

Religious Affiliation (LDS)

43.9%

Religious Affiliation (Non-Christian)

34.0%

Average Age

23

Average Number of Same Sex Partners

.95

Average Number of Opposite Sex Partners

3.2

 

 

Data Collection: Subjects filled out a form of consent which was put away in a locked box, and then subjects chose a number from a basket. They were then asked to write the number on both Survey 1 and Survey 2, and then discard the number. The numbers allowed researchers to compare survey 1 to survey 2 without having any sort of identifying information connected to the surveys. Each subjects received Survey 1, article, and then Survey 2 in that order. Survey 1and Survey 2 was identical. Six of the questions were in the form of the Klein grid, a grid to measure sexual orientation developed by Fritz Klein (Klein 1993). Ten of the questions were fill-in-the-blank, or Likert scale demographic questions. Surveys ask questions regarding a subject’s sexual orientation, desire, behavior and sexual history. Subjects were given surveys and asked to fill them out, on average taking fifteen minutes to successfully complete both surveys and read the article.

Measurement: Both Survey 1 and Survey 2 are identical. Six of the questions are in the form of the Klein grid, a grid to measure sexual orientation developed by Fritz Klein (Klein 1993). 10 of the questions are fill-in-the-blank, or Likert scale. Surveys ask questions regarding a subject’s sexual orientation, desire, behavior and sexual history. Any answers on the Klein grid between 2 and 6 were considered “fluid” answers. Demographic questions focused on religiosity, religious affiliation, sexual orientation, and quantifiable sexual behaviors such as number of partners.

 

 

 

 

Results:  Collected data was analyzed in SPSS; first data was recoded in order to pull “fluid” responses from the data. Any responses in the range of 2-6 on the Klein was pulled out, then a cross tab was ran to explore a possible variance between Survey 1 and Survey 2. The study seems to support the hypothesis that social acceptance influences the fluidity of subject’s responses. Results seem to indicate that the article does in fact influence subjects to mark more “fluid” answers from survey 1 to survey 2. As you can see below, there was a 2.5% increase in fluidity from Survey 1 to Survey 2 as indicated in Sexual Behavior and Sexual Fantasy.

Variance between Survey 1 and Survey 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            Seems to be a correlation in sex, males showed a 5.5 percent increase in “fluid” responses from survey 1 to survey 2. On survey 1, males showed a higher percentage of fluidity in fantasy, behavior and attraction than females. If you compare the two sexes you can see in the chart below that male sexual fluidity increased after reading the article in “fantasy” and “sexual behavior”. Women however, from Survey 1 to Survey 2 stayed the same, although they still displayed some level of fluidity in both Surveys in all areas indicated by any bars above 0%.

 

Gender Variance from Survey 1 to Survey 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The above chart shows that males had greater variance than females in the area of Sexual behavior and sexual fantasy from Survey 1 to Survey 2.

Utah, the location of this study has a high degree of religiosity with 57% of inhabitants being LDS, and 14% of inhabitants being a mix of Catholic, Protestant, and other religious affiliations (CUNY 2000).  Those who marked “I am religious” or “I am very religious” selected less “fluid” answers than other subjects. There was an increase in fluid answers from “past” behaviors and desires to “present” answers when compared to religiosity.  Subjects who identified as “not religious at all” displayed sexual fluidity in their past sexual history while the other levels of religiosity did not.

Past Sexual Behavior and Religiosity (Survey 1)

            Comparing Survey 1 to Survey 2 there was a significant increase in sexually fluid answers from subjects “past” sexual behavior. Still, only those who marked “not religious at all” displayed an increase in past sexual fluidity. Subjects of various other levels of religiosity did not display significant increase.

Past Sexual Behavior and Religiosity (Survey 2)

 

                                                                        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

          In the “present” section of the Klein Grid, under sexual behavior on Survey 1, there is more fluidity even in those that identify themselves as “sort of religious” compared to their “past” where there was no significant correlation. Displaying some fluidity in their answers from past to present displays a certain level of fluidity in age. Since the average age of subjects was 23 years old, they displayed less sexual fluidity in the past compared to present. We see a significant correlation among subjects who are “not religious at all” or “sort of religious” versus subjects who identified as “I am religious” and “I am very religious”.

Present Sexual Behavior and Religiosity (Survey 1)

 

 

            After reading the article on Survey 2, subjects who identified themselves as “not religious at all” showed greater sexual fluidity, more so than subjects of other levels of religiosity. There was a significant increase in fluidity from Survey 1 to Survey 2 in individuals who were “not religious at all” and “sort of religious” compared to those who identified as “I am religious” or “I am very religious”. Level of religiosity has a significant correlation with present sexual fluidity on Survey 2.

 

Present Sexual Behavior and Religiosity (Survey 2)

 

CONCLUSION

 

            Sexuality is a social construct, and is relatively fluid and influenced by social acceptance. Allowing subjects to feel as though it’s okay to display fluidity increases fluid answers significantly in males. Females display significant fluidity, but stay consistent from Survey 1 to Survey 2, meaning that while they are fluid, they are less influenced by the pressures of societal acceptance. Sexual behavior, attraction, and fantasy are fluid, and not necessarily in line with sexual orientation. The research supports the hypothesis that if a subject is told that a behavior is “normal” they will be more likely to display that behavior. The article that argued sexual fluidity is the social norm influenced male subjects to select more “fluid” answers on survey 2.

The hypothesis that there would be gender variance is supported, gender played a significant role; males showed  5.5% greater fluidity on Survey 1 in sexual fluidity in sexual behaviors, and a 5.5% increase in sexual fantasy after reading the article. Males seem to be more influenced by article in the areas of sexual fantasy and behaviors than females. In survey 1 there was some sexual fluidity in both the male and female subjects; males displayed 2.5% more fluidity in their responses than females.

Support the hypothesis that religiosity will influence sexual fluidity. There is a significant correlation between religiosity and sexual fluidity. Those marking “I am religious” or “I am very religious” were less likely to show sexual fluidity in their answers in past sexual behavior yet those marking, “I am not religious” displayed some fluidity in past sexual behavior. Subjects who chose “I am sort of religious” or “I am not religious” were more likely to have fluid responses in their present sexual behaviors, while those identifying as “I am religious” or “I am very religious” did not display fluidity Survey 2, or in their present sexual behavior.

LIMITATIONS

 

            There is no way to know if subjects were being honest, a common problem when dealing with survey data. On future studies a larger sample size from a larger city would be ideal to collect a more diverse sample. Another problem that we ran into was that we found that subjects would occasionally erase their more “fluid” answers on Survey 2, to copy their responses from Survey 1. For future research Survey 1 should be removed from subject before Survey 2 is administered.

Issues of privacy should be address when studying something as sensitive as sexuality. Subjects often had friends walk up and start talking with them while filling out the survey, administering it somewhere with less student traffic might resolve this problem in the future, or providing booths or small rooms.

To better interpret data, interview, along with surveys might be more helpful in understanding responses. We found that subjects who chose “same sex mostly” or “same sex mostly” answers, often chose “opposite sex only” as their ideal, which may be a result of guilt, or discomfort with their sexual orientation, behaviors or desires. A short interview after the survey may help to interpret the answers.

Also, an even sample of both males and females should be collected in future research. There were more females in the study than males which skew the percentages. In hard numbers, females were as sexually fluid on Survey 1, however were still not as influenced by the article as males.

 

WORKS REFERENCED

Brickell, Chris (2006). Sexology and the hetero/homo binary and the complexities of male sexual history. Sage Publications.)

Cotten-Huston, A. L., & Waite, B. M. (2000). Anti-homosexual attitudes in college students: Predictors and classroom interventions.38(3), 117-133. Retrieved from www.csa.com

Culture and the Sociology of Sexuality: It’s Only Natural? Dawn Mood. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 2008; 619;183

(CUNY American Religious Identification Survey 2000).

Cvajner, M. (2007). After Kinsey. Development, limits and perspectives of empirical studies of human sexuality. [Dopo Kinsey. Sviluppo, limiti e prospettive degli studi empirici sulla sessualita umana] Polis, 21(2), 295-321. Retrieved from www.csa.com

Davidson, J. K., Sr., Moore, N. B., Earle, J. R., & Davis, R. (2008). Sexual attitudes and behavior at four universities: Do region, race, and/or religion matter? Adolescence, 43(170), 189-220. Retrieved from www.csa.com

De Waal, B. M. Frans. (1995) Bonobo Sex and Society: The Behavior of a Close Relative Challenges Assumptions About Male Supremacy in Human Evolution.

Diamond, M. Lisa. (2008). Sexual Fluidity: Understanding Women’s Love and Desires. Harvard University Press.

Diamond, L. M., & Butterworth, M. (2008). Questioning gender and sexual identity: Dynamic links over time. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 59(5-6), 365-376. doi:10.1007/s11199-008-9425-3

Diamond, Milton. (1993). Homosexuality and bisexuality in different populations. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 22(4), 291-310. [Uses Kinsey Scale to standardize and measure later studies’ findings.]

Foucault, Michel. 1990. The History of Sexuality: An Introduction. Volume I.

Gordon, E. Liahna and Abbott, A. Sharon. (2003). The Social Constructionist’s “Essential” Guide to Sex. Sexual Lives: A Reader on the Theories and Realities of Human Sexualities. 28-39

Hansen, Charles E., and Evans, A. (1985). Bisexuality reconsidered: An idea in pursuit of a definition. Journal of Homosexuality, 11(1-2), 1-6. [Provides critique of Kinsey Scale and calls for other measures for bisexuality.]

Hoburg, R., Konik, J., Williams, M., & Crawford, M. (2004). Bisexuality among self-identified heterosexual college students. Journal of Bisexuality, 4(1-2), 25-36. doi:10.1300/J159v04n01_03).

Kinnish, K. K., Strassberg, D. S., & Turner, C. W. (2004). Gender differences in the flexibility of sexual orientation. A multidimensional retrospective study.

Kinsey, Alfred C. et al. (1948/1998). Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; Bloomington: Indiana U. Press. [First publication of Kinsey’s Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale. Discusses Kinsey Scale, pp. 636-659.]

Kinsey, Alfred C. et al. (1953/1998). Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; Bloomington: Indiana U. Press. [Discusses the Kinsey Scale and presents comparisons of male and female data, pp. 468-475.]

Klein, Fritz, MD. (1993) The Bisexual Option, Second Edition. Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press.

Laumann, E. O., R. T. Michael, and J. H. Gagnon. (1994). The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lavender, A. D., & Bressler, L. (1981). Nondualists as deviants: Female bisexuals compared to female heterosexuals-homosexuals. Deviant Behavior, 2(2), 155-165. Retrieved from www.csa.com

Lever, J. (1994). The 1994 Advocate Survey of Sexuality and Relationships: The Men. The Advocate: The National Gay and Lesbian Newsmagazine, 08/94. 17-24.

Maner, J. K., Rouby, D. A., & Gonzaga, G. C. (2008). Automatic inattention to attractive alternatives: The evolved psychology of relationship maintenance. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29(5), 343-349. doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2008.04.003

McWhirter, David P., et al. (1990). Homosexuality/Heterosexuality: Concepts of Sexual Orientation. New York: Oxford University Press.

Moon, D. (2008). Culture and the sociology of sexuality: It’s only natural? 619(1), 183-205.

Rowatt, W. C., & Schmitt, D. P. (2003). Associations between religious orientation and varieties of sexual experience. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42(3), 455-465. Retrieved from www.csa.com

Schwartz, Pepper. Rutter, Virgina. Sexual Desire and Gender. (2003). Sexual Lives: A Reader on the Theories and Realities of Human Sexualities. 174-196.

Stokes, J. P., Miller, R. L., & Mundhenk, R. (1998). Toward an understanding of behaviorally bisexual men: The influence of context and culture. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 7(2), 101-113. Retrieved from www.csa.com

Weeks, Jeffrey (2003). The Invention of Sexuality. Sexual Lives: A Reader on the Theories and Realities of Human Sexuality. 39-50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix A

SUBJECT_______________               SURVEY 1

The following questions are personal questions about sexuality. Please answer as honestly as possible, and remember your information is completely confidential and unidentifiable.

Use the appropriate number from scale 1 to answer the questions. Each box, past, present, and ideal should be filled in with the corresponding number that you feel best represents you.

 

Scale 1

Other sex only

Other sex mostly

Other sex somewhat more

Both sexes equally

Same sex somewhat more

Same sex mostly

Same sex only

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Past

Present

Ideal

A. Sexual Attraction

B. Sexual Behavior (with whom do you have sex)

C. Sexual Fantasies

D. Emotional Preference

E. Social Preference (which sex do you dominantly socialize with?)

Use Scale 2 for following Question. Again, each box past, present, and ideal should be filled in.  

Scale 2

Hetero only

Hetero mostly

Hetero somewhat more

Hetero/Gay

Gay somewhat more

Gay mostly

Gay only

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

 

F. Self Identification (Do you identify yourself as straight, gay, bi?)

 

Appendix B

SUBJECT________________     SURVEY 2

The following questions are personal questions about sexuality. Please answer as honestly as possible, and remember your information is completely confidential and unidentifiable.

Use the appropriate number from scale 1 to answer the questions. Each box, past, present and ideal should be filled in with the corresponding number that you feel best represents you.

 

Scale 1

Other sex only

Other sex mostly

Other sex somewhat more

Both sexes equally

Same sex somewhat more

Same sex mostly

Same sex only

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Past

Present

Ideal

A. Sexual Attraction

B. Sexual Behavior (with whom do you have sex)

C. Sexual Fantasies

D. Emotional Preference

E. Social Preference (which sex do you dominantly socialize with?)

Use Scale 2 for following Question. Again, each box past, present, and ideal should be filled in.  

Scale 2

Hetero only

Hetero mostly

Hetero somewhat more

Hetero/Gay

Gay somewhat more

Gay mostly

Gay only

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

 

F. Self Identification (Do you identify yourself as straight, gay, bi?)

 

Please answer each question honestly. You’re information will be confidential, with no ability to trace your answers back to you. Mark the answer that feels right to you right now.

  1.  Are you Male or Female?  (Circle appropriate answer)

□        Male

□        Female

  1. How old are you? _______________.
  2. How religious are you? (Circle appropriate answer)

□        Not religious at all

□        Not very religious

□        I am sort of religious

□        I am religious

□        I am very religious

  1. What specific faith are you affiliated with? ___________________________.
  2. What is your current academic year? ___________________________
  3. What is your current course of study?             Major: _______________________

Minor: _______________________

7.  Are you particular about the sex of a person you are considering for intercourse?

□        Other sex only

□        Other sex mostly

□        Other sex somewhat more

□        Both sexes equally

□        Same sex somewhat more

□        Same sex mostly

□        Same sex only

8.  What is the most important characteristic when determining a sexual partner?

□        Their sex

□        Race

□        Education

□        Weight

□        Income

□        Sexual Reputation

□        Appearance

□        Other

9.  How many same-sex sex partners have you had? ________________________.

10.  How many opposite sex partners have you had?  ________________________.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix C

 

ARTICLE THAT WAS ADMINISTERED WITH SURVEYS

 

In Between the Lines: Studies Show Humans are neither Homo nor Hetero Sexual

 

One of the first things human beings are taught as children in western culture is their gender. In modern times, little girls are socialized to like pink, princesses, and knights on white horses. Little boys are raised to rough house, like blue, sports and bugs. These modern gender roles create modern societal definitions of boys and girls.  But these definitions change both with society and over time.  In contrast, girls in ancient Sparta were expected to wield a sword and fight along-side the men. The men were able warriors who were raised to be sexually attracted to men. These men were raised to have a different sexual orientation, which is a direct contradiction that humans are born only liking one sex or another.  Human sexuality is fluid, and can change based on societal definitions.

Studies that have been conducted researching the history of sexuality, sexual desire, and sexual behavior all show the same results: Human sexual orientation is fluid, taught, and changes throughout time. Historically cultures have wavered between rigid sexual norms induced by the Judeo-Christian movement where heterosexual monogamous procreation sex was the only acceptable kind, from Greek culture where bisexuality was the social norm, and both men and women regularly participated in same sex sexual behaviors. In fact, our closest genetic relative, the Bonobo Chimpanzee, exhibits bisexual behavior. Due to the genetic similarity, Bonobos’ can be looked at to study humans and human practices. Bonobo chimps have both homo and hetero sexual sex frequently. In addition to mating for procreation, they also have sex for recreation, and also for conflict resolution. If historically humans show bisexuality, and our closest genetic relatives are bisexual, logically modern humans might be closer to bisexual than hetero or homosexual.

Dr. Alfred Kinsey, a famous sex researcher (you may have seen the movie, ‘The Kinsey Project’) studied human sexuality to determine that sexual desires and behaviors were not the same as their orientation. Heterosexual women more often than not reported having sexual fantasies, desires, or behaviors towards other women, and frequently heterosexual men admitted to having sexual experiences with other men. Surprisingly, most people, even those that identified themselves as homosexuals, were attracted to both sexes to some amount. In fact, no one in a confidential setting were completely homo or heterosexual, surprising researchers that humans do not seem to have a set sexual orientation, but rather they choose one that fits into societal norms and standards. Other sex researchers like Michel Foucault and Fritz Klein have confirmed these finding.

Additionally Kinsey discovered people who claimed to be completely hetero or homosexual were “lying”, in lab tests they were sexually stimulated by images of people of the same sex doing sexual acts. While their socialized brains told them to be “gay” or “straight” their bodies responded otherwise, suggesting that their sexuality is more fluid then initially thought.  Human beings are influenced heavily by their culture, and extrinsic sexual desires and behaviors match societal norms. However, biologically, it seems that humans are walking a blurred line sexually. We are neither homo nor hetero sexual, but fluid somewhere in between. Our fluid sexual orientation however is only displayed when society allows it, or when we are in a place where we feel safe in admitting it.

2 thoughts on “Academic Writing On Sex

  1. Katalyst Oman

    good first start. if you are REALLY interested in this topic, there is a book that will blow your mind, both on a scientific and personal level:

    Sperm Wars: Infidelity, Sexual Conflict and Other Bedroom Battles.

    (It’s research based.)

    – K

    Reply

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